Hypogonadism is a condition in which one or both the testis are smaller in size
Congenital or Acquired.
Male hypogonadism may delay puberty or cause incomplete or lack of normal development. It can cause:
Decreased development of muscle mass.
Lack of deepening of the voice.
Impaired growth of body hair.
Impaired growth of the penis and testicles.
Excessive growth of the arms and legs in relation to the trunk of the body.
Development of breast tissue (gynecomastia).
In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs and symptoms may include:
Decrease in beard and body hair growth
Decrease in muscle mass
Development of breast tissue (gynecomastia)
Loss of bone mass (osteoporosis)
Hypogonadism can also cause mental and emotional changes. As testosterone decreases, some men may
experience symptoms similar to those of menopause in women. These may include:
Decreased sex drive
Common causes of primary hypogonadism include:
Klinefelter syndrome – congenital abnormality.
Injury to the testicles.
The testicles are normal but function improperly due to a problem with the pituitary or hypothalamus.
Pituitary disorders. .
Inflammatory disease. Such as sarcoidosis, histiocytosis and tuberculosis, involve the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS can cause low levels of testosterone
Obesity. Being significantly overweight at any age may be linked to hypogonadism.
DiagnosisPhysical examination of secondary sexual characteristics like pubic hair, muscle mass and size of your testes, is consistent with your age.
Blood tests – Testosterone, Free Testosterone (to be done before 10am)
If tests confirm you have low testosterone, further testing can determine if a testicular disorder
or a pituitary abnormality is the cause. Based on specific signs and symptoms, additional studies can
pinpoint the cause. These studies may include:
Testosterone testing also plays an important role in managing hypogonadism. This helps your doctor
determine the right dosage of medication, both initially and over time.
Treatment for adultsTreatment for male hypogonadism depends on the cause and whether you’re concerned about fertility.
Hormone replacement. Testosterone replacement therapy, or TRT, TRT can restore muscle
strength and prevent bone loss. In addition, men receiving TRT may experience an increase in energy,
sex drive, erectile function and sense of well-being.
Assisted reproduction. Although there’s often no effective treatment to restore fertility
in a man with primary hypogonadism, assisted reproductive technology may be helpful.